Bureaucracies, however, rarely conform to the Weberian ideal type. Beneath the surface of bureaucratic rationality, the Commission is much more complex and messy in its everyday practices.
bargeschvawisra.gq: Green Parties and Politics in the European Union (Routledge Research in European Public Policy) (): Elizabeth Bomberg: Books. Routledge Published March 5, Reference - Pages ISBN - CAT# RU Series: Routledge Research in European Public Policy.
The staff unions blamed Delors for encouraging these practices, virtually all of which were clearly identified two decades earlier in a report by the Dutch Commissioner, Dirk Spierenberg. These observations are important for understanding the crisis that befell the Santer Commission in But the episode also reveals critical insights into the complex relationship between the Commission and the European Parliament and the defective organisational cultures of both institutions. Elsewhere it noted:. MacMullen The report drew a sinister picture of a shadowy inner world of clientelism and corruption where collusion between security officials and the Belgian police was rife.
The report was particularly scathing on the attitude to issues of accountability and responsibility that pervades the Commission. In a damning paragraph it concluded:. It is becoming difficult to find anyone who has even the slightest sense of responsibility. However, that sense of responsibility is essential.
kedspiviny.tk It must be demonstrated, first and foremost, by the Commissioners individually and the Commission as a body. The temptation to deprive the concept of responsibility of all substance is a dangerous one. That concept is the ultimate manifestation of democracy. CIE Cresson had appointed her long-standing personal friend and dentist, Mr.
Berthelot possessed none of the scientific qualifications required, his appointment was manifestly irregular, his contract was extended beyond its legal limit, and he produced no work for the Commission. His only discernible activity was constant visits to the town of Chatellerault - where Cresson had remained mayor until the end of - at the request of the Commissioner.
The reactions of senior Commissions to the report were equally revealing. Its blunt language had clearly shocked the Commission - which had expected the report to lay the whole issue to rest. These reactions only inflamed public outrage and media hostility although criticism was notably more muted in southern Europe. Neil Kinnock, Vice President of the Commission, was charged with the job of cleaning up the administration. But he has faced a great deal of hostility and resistance, particularly from the staff unions.
How should we interpret these events? The views expressed by staff are interesting. Four kinds of argument are commonly advanced to explain these mistakes and irregularities in policy implementation:. The first three arguments can be easily dismissed: first, the Commission had enthusiastically launched these programmes in full knowledge of its limited resources.
Moreover, while it is a common tactic to blame the Council of Ministers for failing to authorise staff increases, in fact, the Commission had not even requested them. Second, fraud and mismanagement were found to be endemic - and not only among non-statutory staff. What the Report exposed was, arguably, just the tip of the iceberg. Finally, the scale of fraud and budgetary misuse in the EU is by no means insignificant.
Apart from the fact that about half the EU budget is spent on the Common Agricultural Policy, itself a deeply irrational and wasteful use of resources, on a straight accounting basis, staggering sums are not spent as intended. As one group of EU analysts note:. These include:. In many respects the administrative arrangements of the EU lend themselves to fraud and misuse.
The CIE report drew similar conclusion:. Two factors further illustrate this.
Buitenen was rewarded for his courage by being promptly sacked from his post and subjected to disciplinary action. The answer is that the existence of fraud within the Commission was known about for several years prior to the report, but was tolerated by a weak and lax European Parliament.
When documents leaked to the press finally compelled MEPs to take action, the initial response from the leadership of the Socialist Group was to try protect their friends in the Commission by preventing the scandal from breaking. On the contrary, collusion between EU officials, MEPs and politicians suggests that a sense of common purpose is developing, not only within the institutions, but also between them. In short, what we see is the consolidation of an increasingly self-serving and detached classe politique with its own peculiar interests and agendas.
Whatever the explanation, one political lesson is clear. The unpalatable truth is that this seems to be the logic of the Monnet Method.
For an analysis of the role of metaphors in EU politics see Shore For a more detailed analysis of the arguments explored in this pamphlet see Shore , Building Europe: The Cultural Politics of European Integration. The ethnographic research upon which this paper is based was carried out in Brussels between and CEC Bremner See Smith Cited in Courouble This was also the conclusion of the German Federal Constitutional Court in its deliberations on the Maastricht Treaty cf.
Weiler for an interesting critique. See Howe for discussion of these points.
See Leicester ; Smith Many economists, including the Governor of the Bank of England, Eddie George , have warned about the potential for international conflict inherent in EMU Connolly ; Feldstein For anthropological commentaries on definitions and uses of the culture concept see Cohen ; Wright Cited in Pieterse 3. Hobsbawm and Ranger Cited in Morley and Robins 3. See Fontaine and Attali for illustrations of these views.
Among those that are, see in particular Cini , Edwards and Spence and Page Williamson, D. Financial Times 17 March Economist, 20 March 20 My view is that this is a simplistic and misleading stereotype. There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to suggest that concepts of probity and honesty in public affairs differ between northern Protestant and southern Catholic countries e. Bellier and T. Brugmans ed. Cohen, A. Fontaine, P. What about us? Moussis, Nicholas Access to European Union. Law, Economics, Policies, Genval: Euroconfidential s.
Nugent, Neil ed At the Heart of the Union. Wallace, W. Wallace and C. The Bruges Group spearheaded the intellectual battle to win a vote to leave the European Union and, above all, against the emergence of a centralised EU state. European Union and the Politics of Culture.
Introduction This pamphlet explores the role of 'culture' in the process of European integration and, more specifically, the way 'culture' has been used by EU elites to advance the project of 'European Construction'1. Integration and the Question of Identity Although traditionally defined as a 'Common Market' and association of sovereign states, the European Community was always seen by its 'founding fathers' as a prelude to a deeper political union.
As the founding Treaties declare CEC , the aim was 'to lay the foundations of an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe' and beyond this: to substitute for age-old rivalries the merging of their essential interests; to create, by establishing an economic community, the basis for a broader and deeper community among peoples long divided by bloody conflict; and to lay the foundations for institutions which will give direction to a destiny henceforward shared.
To quote Hobsbawm 5 : '[t]he European Union has utterly failed in establishing a European identity as an alternative to various national identities. However, the Council of Europe gave a different rationale: Twelve was a symbol of perfection and plenitude, associated equally with the apostles, the sons of Jacob, the tables of the Roman legislator, the labours of Hercules, the hours of the day, the months of the year, or the signs of the Zodiac. Jacques Delors 16 addressed this point in his first speech to the European Parliament as Commission President in The culture industry will tomorrow be one of the biggest industries, a creator of wealth and jobs.
More controversially, it suggested that, newscasters and reporters must themselves be targeted, they must themselves be persuaded about European Union so that they subsequently become enthusiastic supporters of the cause The report concluded: We need to protect our quality of life: our European way of life.
Can a European Demos be Manufactured? Organisational Culture of the European Commission So what sort of organisational culture has the EU created within its institutions, and what are the implications for European integration more generally? Elsewhere it noted: a catalogue of instances of fraudulently altered tender specifications and disregard for lower tenders, fictitious and double invoicing, inflated fees; unjustified and illegal payments, non-existent reports, simple fraud where a staff member wrote cheques payable to herself, clear cases of favouritism in employment, and evasion of tax and social security obligations In a damning paragraph it concluded: It is becoming difficult to find anyone who has even the slightest sense of responsibility.
Explaining Corruption in the EU How should we interpret these events?
However, its effect within the party system is much higher in Example 2. Lieselotte I do not hear about that at all, other than the fact that the bananas must have a specific curvature and all eggs must be of equal size. Issues in the campaign for the elections for the European Parliament , Electoral Studies 14 2 : — Winnerstig M ed Tools of destabilization. Dalton, R. Measuring Regional Authority.
Four kinds of argument are commonly advanced to explain these mistakes and irregularities in policy implementation: 1. CEC European Governance. Monnet, Jean Memoirs, trans. Mayne , New York: Doubleday and Co. Pieterse, J. Contact us Director : Robert Oulds Tel: Email: info brugesgroup. Email: barry. United Kingdom. Throughout the reports studied, Russia is described as the main intelligence threat.
Some describe China as a similar threat, or as another major threat, and Iran is also often named. BfV also, as the only service, mentions allied activities, including one case of U. Russia is also described as the foreign state that tries to influence European politics and decision-making most. The Russian intelligence services are viewed as very competent, and their influence activities are intensive, and it is not expected that they will be reduced in the foreseeable future BfV, : p. Several factors might contribute to this: a combination of deteriorating relations and internal Russian challenges Kanet, ; Giles et al.
As for China, their focus is mainly on European political decision-making processes, on exile opposition, and on technical and industrial espionage BfV, a : p. A recent comprehensive study attributed 80 percent of influence efforts in Europe to Russia, with China as the second largest state actor Vilmer et al.